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Treatment of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water

Treatment of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water

International Journal Food Microbiology 2003 Sep 15;86(3):231-7. Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Pennsylvania State University , University Park , PA 16802 , USA . Electrolyzed oxidizing water is a relatively new concept that has been utilized in agriculture, livestock management, medical sterilization, and food sanitation. Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water generated by passing sodium chloride solution through an EO water generator was used to treat alfalfa seeds and sprouts inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7. EO water had a pH of 2.6, an oxidation-reduction potential of 1150 mV and about 50 ppm free chlorine. The percentage reduction in bacterial load was determined for reaction times of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 min. Mechanical agitation was done while treating the seeds at different time intervals to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Since E. coli O157:H7 was released due to soaking during treatment, the initial counts on seeds and sprouts were determined by soaking the contaminated seeds/sprouts in 0.1% peptone water for a period equivalent to treatment time. The samples were then pummeled in 0.1% peptone water and spread plated on tryptic soy agar with 5 microg/ml of nalidixic acid (TSAN). Results showed that there were reductions between 38.2% and 97.1% (0.22-1.56 log(10) CFU/g) in the bacterial load of treated seeds. The reductions for sprouts were between 91.1% and 99.8% (1.05-2.72 log(10) CFU/g). An increase in treatment time increased the percentage reduction of E. coli O157:H7. However, germination of the treated seeds reduced from 92% to 49% as amperage to make EO water and soaking time increased. EO water did not cause any visible damage to the sprouts. PMID: 12915034 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Ionized Acid Water promotes substantially healthier plant...

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The Best and Worst States for Your Heart

The Best and Worst States for Your Heart

State-by-State Heart Health The study is the first to examine the nation’s heart health on a state-by-state basis. There were a few surprises, says CDC epidemiologist Jing Fang, MD, of the Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. The telephone survey included more than 350,000 people in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. They were asked about seven key heart health indicators: Blood pressure Total cholesterol Smoking status Weight (as measured by body mass index ) Diabetes Physical activity Fruit and vegetable consumption Based on the responses, the survey findings suggest that: Just 3% of U.S. adults have ideal heart health. About 10% adults in the U.S. have poor heart health. The states with the fewest people with optimal heart health are Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Mississippi. The places with the largest number of residents having no major risk factors for heart disease are Washington, D.C., Vermont, Virginia, and Connecticut. People living in New England and in the western U.S. generally have better heart health than those living in the South and Midwest. Just 14% of Oklahomans said they ate five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day, compared to 31% of Washington, D.C., residents, the highest in the nation to meet this dietary goal. Just 3% of Americans Heart-Healthy Cardiologist Clyde W. Yancy, MD, says the real news in the survey is that so few American adults had none of the seven risk factors for heart disease. Yancy is chief of the division of cardiology at Chicago’s Northwestern Memorial Hospital and professor of medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. “We know that 80% of the burden of heart disease and stroke is preventable,” he says. “We have to get people to change their culture, to change their diets and their exercise patterns, and to treat their high blood pressure and high cholesterol . Each of the seven (risk factors) that were asked about in this survey can be addressed if people decide to do it.” American Heart Association President Donna K. Arnett, MD, agrees. “The number of people in the U.S. who have what the AHA would consider ideal cardiovascular health is low: only 3.3% of the population,” she says. “This reinforces the importance of the AHA’s goal of improving the cardiovascular health of all Americans by a factor of 20% by 2020. The report does show that there is not only...

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