Water Contaminants

Water Contaminants

A List: Common Drinking Water Contaminants

Potential Contamination Sources,

Possible Health Effects

Water Treatment Options

Acrylamide:

Short-term: nervous system damage, weakness and incoordination in the legs.

Long-term: damage to the nervous system, paralysis, cancer.

Sources of contamination: a coagulant aid in drinking water treatment, sewage/wastewater treatment, oil wells, organic chemical and dye production, paper and textile sizing, ore processing, dam foundation and tunnel construction.

Note: August 20, 2006 EPA website quote, “The regulation for acrylamide became effective in 1992. EPA requires your water supplier to show that when acrylamide is added to water, the
amount of uncoagulated acrylamide is less than 0.5 ppb.”

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Alachlor:

Short term: slight skin and eye irritation.

Long-term: damage to liver, kidney, spleen; lining of nose, eyelids; cancer.

Sources of contamination: runoff from herbicide used on row crops.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Antimony:

Short term: nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Long term: increase in blood cholesterol, decrease in blood sugar, cancer.

Sources of contamination: discharge from petroleum refineries, fire retardants, ceramics, electronics, fire works, solder.

Water treatment options: coagulation + filtration, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox).

Arsenic:

Long term: cancers (e.g., bladder, skin, lung); hypertension, diabetes, deficits in the IQ of children, malignant tumors of skin and lungs, cramps, spasms, effects to nervous system.

Sources of contamination: Erosion of natural deposits, runoff from orchards, runoff from glass & electronics production wastes.

Water treatment options: ion exchange, coagulation + filtration, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Asbestos:

Short-term: Asbestos is not known to cause any health problems when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time.

Long-term: lung disease, cancer.
Sources of contamination: decay of asbestos cement in water mains,

natural deposits.

Water treatment options: coagulation + filtration, direct and diatomite filtration, corrosion control, distillation + filtration, reverse osmosis.

Atrazine:

Short term: congestion of heart, lungs and kidneys; low blood pressure; muscle spasms; weight loss; damage to adrenal glands, as well as, reproductive disabilities in fetuses, children/young adults.

-term: weight loss, cardiovascular damage, retinal and muscle degeneration; Sources of contamination: runoff from herbicide used on row crops.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

2,4-D:

Short term: nervous system damage.

Long-term: damage to the nervous system, kidneys and liver.

Sources of contaminant: Runoff from herbicide used on row crops.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

2,4,5-TP (Silvex):

Short term: depression and other nervous system effects, weakness, stomach irritation and minor damage to liver/kidneys.

Long-term: minor liver and kidney damage.
Sources of contaminant: residue of banned herbicide.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Barium:

Long term: prolonged stimulant action on muscles, nerve block. Sources of contamination: discharge of drilling wastes, discharge from

metal refineries, erosion of natural deposits.
Water treatment options: ion exchange, reverse osmosis.

Benzene

Short term: temporary nervous system disorders, immune system depression, anemia.

Long-term: chromosome aberrations, cancer.
Sources of contamination: discharge from factories, leaching from gas

storage tanks and landfills.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox).

Benzo(a)pyrene (PAHs):

Short-term: red blood cell damage, leading to anemia; suppressed immune system.

Long-term: developmental and reproductive effects; cancer.
Sources of contamination: leaching from linings of water storage tanks

and distribution lines.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox).

Beryllium:

Short-term: inflammation of the lungs when inhaled, less toxic in drinking water.

Long-term: lung and bone damage, cancer.
Sources of contamination: discharge from metal refineries and coal-

burning factories, discharge from electrical, aerospace, defense industries.

Water treatment options: coagulation + filtration, ion exchange, reverse osmosis.

Cadmium:

Short term: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle cramps, salivation, sensory disturbances, liver injury, convulsions, shock and renal failure.

Long-term: kidney, liver, bone and blood damage.

Sources of contamination: galvanized pipe corrosion, erosion of natural deposits, discharge from metal refineries, runoff from waste batteries and paints.

Water treatment options: coagulation + filtration, ion exchange, reverse osmosis.

Carbon tetrachloride:

Short term: liver, kidney and lung damage.

Long-term: liver damage; cancer.
Sources of contaminant: Discharge from chemical plants and other

industrial activities

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox).

Carbofuran:

Short-term: headache, sweating, nausea, diarrhea, chest pains, blurred vision, anxiety and general muscular weakness. These effects are reversible.

Long-term: nervous and reproductive system damage.
Sources of contaminant: leaching of soil fumigant used on rice and alfalfa.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox).

Chlorobenzene:

Short term: anesthetic effects; impaired liver/kidney function.Long- term: liver, kidney and central nervous system damage.

Sources of contaminant: Chemical and agricultural chemical factor discharge.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox).

Chromium:

Short term: skin irritation; ulceration.
Long-term: damage to liver, kidney circulatory and nerve tissues; skin

irritation; cancer.

Sources of contamination: discharge from steel and pulp mills, erosion of natural deposits.

Water treatment options: coagulation + filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, deionazition.

Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorite, Chlorate, Chloramines:

Short term; stomach discomfort.
Long Term: stomach discomfort, anemia, cancer.

Sources of contaminant: chlorine is a water additive used to control microbes.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Copper:

Short term: gastrointestinal disturbance, nausea and vomiting. Long Term: liver or kidney damage; possible infant fatality. People with Wilson’s disease may be more sensitive than others.

Sources of contamination: corrosion of household plumbing systems, erosion of natural deposits.

Water treatment options: corrosion control, coagulation + filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange.

Cryptosporidium:

Short term: gastrointestinal illness, with symptoms that include diarrhea, nausea, and/or stomach cramps, death. Sources of contaminant: Human and fecal animal waste commonly found in lakes and rivers.

Water treatment options: reverse osmosis, Absolute 1 micron or smaller filtration (rated for cyst removal), distillation + filtration, boiling.

Cyanide (free cyanide):

Short-term: rapid breathing, tremors and other neurological effects.

Long-term: weight loss, thyroid effects, nerve damage. Sources of contamination: steel/metal factory discharge, plastic and fertilizer factory discharge.

Water treatment options: ion exchange, reverse osmosis, chlorination.

Dalapon:

Long-term: increased kidney-to-body weight.

Sources of contaminant: runoff from herbicide used on rights of way. Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis,

reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

1,2-Dibromo-3- chloropropane (DBCP):

Short-term: kidney and liver damage and atrophy of the testes.

Long-term: kidney damage and antifertility; cancer. Sources of contaminant: runoff/leaching from soil fumigant used on soybeans, cotton, pineapples, and orchards.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Dichlorobenzenes:

Long term: damage to the nervous system, spleen, liver, kidneys and blood cells, anemia.

Sources of contaminant: industrial chemical factory discharge.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Dichloroethane(s):

Short term: weight loss, wasting of glands important to the body’s immune system, central nervous system disorders; adverse lung, kidney, liver, circulatory and gastrointestinal effects.

Long term: liver and kidney damage, toxicity to developing fetus, cancer. Sources of contaminant: industrial chemical factory discharge.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

1,2- Dichloropropane:

Short-term: liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, bladder, and the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract damage.

Long-term: liver, kidneys, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory tract damage; cancer.

Sources of contaminant: industrial chemical factory discharge.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate:

Short/Long term: reduced body weight and bone mass; damage to liver and testes; cancer.

Sources of contaminant: chemical factory discharge.
Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate:

Short/Long term: reproductive difficulties; liver problems; increased risk of cancer.

Sources of contaminant: rubber and chemical factory discharge.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Dinoseb:

Short-term: sweating, headache, mood changes.

Long-term: decreased body and thyroid weight, degeneration of testes; thickening of intestinal lining. Sources of contaminant: Runoff from herbicide used on E. coli (O157:H7)soybeans, cereals, corn, peas and vegetables.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Dioxin:

Short term: liver damage, weight loss, wasting of glands important to the body’s immune system.

Long-term: a variety of reproductive effects, from reduced fertility to birth defects; cancer.

Sources of contaminant: Emissions from waste incineration and other combustion; discharge from chemical factories.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Diquat:

Short term: dehydration. Long-term: cataracts.

Sources of contaminant: runoff from herbicide use.
Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

E. coli (O157:H7) and fecal coliforms:

Short term: diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome leading to acute kidney failure; death.

Sources of Contamination: human and animal wastes washed into streams, rivers, lakes and groundwater.

Water treatment options: reverse osmosis, charcoal filtration + ultra- violet light, ozone, distillation + filtration, chlorination.

Endothall:

Short-term: depressed breathing and heart rate.
Long-term: increase in size of some internal organs, particularly the stomach and intestine.
Sources of contaminant: runoff from herbicide use.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Endrin:

Short-term: tremors, labored breathing, mental confusion, convulsions. Long-term: convulsions and damage to liver tissue. Sources of contaminant: Residue of banned insecticide.
Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Epichlorohydrin:

Short-term: skin irritation; detrimental effects on liver, kidneys, central nervous system.

Long-term: stomach, eye and skin irritation; chromosome aberrations; adverse changes in blood; cancer.

Sources of contaminant: discharge from industrial chemical factories; an impurity of some water treatment chemicals

Note: From the EPA website August 31, 2006: The regulation for epichlorohydrin became effective in 1992. EPA requires your water supplier to show that when epichlorohydrin is added to water, the amount of uncoagulated epichlorohydrin is less than 2 ppb.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Ethylbenzene:

Short-term: drowsiness, fatigue, headache and mild eye and respiratory irritation.

Long-term: damage to the liver, kidneys, central nervous system and eyes. Sources of contamination: used to make styrene for many plastics, a solvent for coatings, rubber and plastic wrap.
Water treatment options: activated charcoal + aeration.

Ethylene dibromide:

Short-term: damage to the liver, stomach, and adrenal glands, along with significant reproductive system toxicity, particularly the testes.

Long-term: damage to the respiratory system, nervous system, liver, heart, and kidneys; cancer.

Sources of contaminant: used in anti-knock gasoline mixtures, particularly in aviation fuel. Other uses include: as a solvent for resins, gums, and waxes; in waterproofing preparations; in making dyes and drugs; and as a pesticide for grains and fruit.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation-filtration.

Fecal Coliform and E coli:

Short term: diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome leading to acute kidney failure, death.

Sources of Contamination: human and animal wastes washed into streams, rivers, lakes and groundwater.

Water treatment options: reverse osmosis, charcoal filtration + ultra- violet light, ozone, chlorination.

Fluoride:

Long term: hypothyroidism; skeletal damage; cancer in animals, bone disease, including pain, tenderness of the bones, bone fractures, arthritis, mutagenicity. Children under nine should not drink water that has more than 2 mg/L of fluoride.

Sources of contamination: Water additive which promotes strong teeth, erosion of natural deposits, fertilizer and aluminum factory discharge.

Water treatment options: reverse osmosis.

Giardia lamblia:

Short term: gastrointestinal illness (e.g. diarrhea, vomiting, cramps).

Sources of contaminant: Human and animal fecal waste commonly found in lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, shallow wells, and recreational water (swimming pools, hot tubs, Jacuzzis).

Water treatment options: reverse osmosis, carbon or ceramic filters rated Absolute 1 micron or smaller (rated for cyst removal), distillation + filtration, boiling.

Glyphosate:

Short term: congestion of the lungs; increased breathing rate.

Long-term: kidney damage, reproductive effects.

Sources of contamination: runoff from herbicide use.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation-filtration.

Heptachlor and Heptachlor epoxide:

Short term: liver and central nervous system damage. Long-term: extensive liver damage; cancer.

Sources of contaminant: once used as a non-agricultural insecticide. Most uses of the product were canceled in 1978. No used for fire ant control in buried/underground power transformers, cable television and telephone boxes.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation-filtration.

Hexachlorobenzene:

Short-term: skin lesions, nerve and liver damage.
Long-term: reproductive effects; benign tumors of endocrine glands; cancer.

Sources of contaminant: discharge from metal refineries and agricultural chemical factories

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation-filtration.

Hexachlorocy_ clopentadiene:

Short-term: gastrointestinal distress; damage to liver, kidneys and heart. Long-term: damage to the stomach and kidneys.
Sources of contaminant: discharge from chemical factories
Water treatment options: activated charcoal + aeration.

Lead:

Short term: interference with red blood cell chemistry, delays in normal physical and mental development in babies and young children, slight deficits in the attention span, hearing, and learning abilities of children, and slight increases in the blood pressure of some adults.

Long term: stroke and kidney disease; cancer.
Sources of contamination: corrosion of household plumbing systems, erosion of natural deposits.

Water treatment options: corrosion control, eliminate source of lead from water system, lead distribution pipes, and house copper pipe lead- solder joints, increase water pH, reduce chlorine level, reverse osmosis, neutralizing filters.

Legionella:

Short term: fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, headaches, tiredness, loss of appetite, diarrhea, pneumonia.

Sources of contamination: Found naturally in water; multiplies in heating systems, may thrive in residential hot water pipes… the water supply used in residential homes may be directly responsible for 20% or more cases. Is spread through inhalation, which can occur while showering, washing or drinking the water.

Water treatment options: water heater set to 140°F or higher; ultra violet light, ozone, instantaneous steam heating, complete water system disinfection.

Lindane:

Short term: high body temperature; pulmonary edema. Long-term: liver and kidney damage.

Sources of contaminant: runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cattle, lumber, and gardens.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Mercury:

Short term: kidney impairment. Long term: death.

Sources of contamination: erosion of natural deposits, refinery and factory discharge, runoff from landfills and croplands.

Water treatment options: granular or powdered activated charcoal filtration, reverse osmosis, coagulation + filtration.

Methoxychlor:

Short-term: central nervous system depression, diarrhea, and damage to liver, kidney and heart tissue.

Long-term: damage to liver, kidney and heart tissue; retards growth. Sources of contaminant: runoff/leaching from insecticide used on fruits,

vegetables, alfalfa, livestock.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Nickel:

Long term: decreased body weight; heart and liver damage; skin irritation; hyperglycemia; gastrointestinal and nervous disorders.

Sources of contaminant:
Water treatment options: ion exchange, reverse osmosis.

Nitrate/Nitrite:

Excessive levels of nitrate in drinking water have caused serious illness and sometimes death.

Short-term: The serious illness in infants is due to the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by the body, which can interfere with the oxygen-carrying capacity of the child’s blood. This can be an acute condition in which health deteriorates rapidly over a period of days. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blueness of the skin.

Long-term: diuresis, increased starchy deposits and hemorrhaging of the spleen.

Sources of contamination: runoff from fertilizer use, leaching from septic tanks, sewage, livestock feedlots, erosion of natural deposits.

Water treatment options: reverse osmosis, ion exchange, distillation + filtration.

Oxamyl (Vydate):

Short-term: tremors, salivation and tearing due to interference with nerve function.

Long-term: decreased body weight.
Sources of contaminant: runoff/leaching from insecticide used on apples, potatoes, and tomatoes.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), ozone, distillation + filtration.

Pentachlorophenol (PCP):

Short term: damage to the central nervous system.

Long-term: reproductive effects; damage to liver and kidneys; cancer.

Sources of contaminant: discharge from wood preserving factories.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Picloram:

Short term: damage to central nervous system; weakness; diarrhea; weight loss.

Long-term: liver damage.
Sources of contaminant: runoff from herbicide use.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB’s):

Short term: acne-like eruptions and pigmentation of the skin; hearing and vision problems; spasms.

Long-term: affects similar to acute poisonings; irritation of nose, throat and gastrointestinal tracts; changes in liver function; cancer.

Sources of contaminant: Runoff from landfills; discharge of waste chemicals.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction-oxidation (redox), distillation + filtration.

Radon:

Long term: cancer; kidney toxicity.
Sources of contaminant: erosion or decay of natural and man-made deposits of certain minerals that are radioactive.

Water treatment options: aeration, activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, distillation + filtration, storage for 8+ days.

Sodium:

Long term: Hypertension,
Sources of contaminant:
Water treatment options: reverse osmosis; ion exchange softening.

Selenium:

Short term: hair/fingernail changes; damage to peripheral nervous system; mucous membrane irritation, dermatitis; fatigue; irritability.

Long-term: hair/fingernail loss; kidney damage; liver tissue damage; nervous and circulatory system damage; cancer.

Sources of contamination: petroleum refinery discharge, erosion of natural deposits, discharge from mines.

Water treatment options: reverse osmosis, coagulation + filtration.

Simazine:

Short term: weight loss, changes in blood.
Long-term: tremors; damage to testes, kidneys, liver and thyroid; gene mutations; cancer.
Sources of contaminant: runoff from herbicide use.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, oxidation, distillation + filtration.

Styrene:

Short-term: nervous system effects such as depression, loss of concentration, weakness, fatigue and nausea.

Long-term: liver and nerve tissue damage; cancer.
Sources of contaminant: discharge from rubber and plastic factories; leaching from landfills.
Water treatment options: activated charcoal + aeration.

Sulfate:

Laxative action.
Sources of contaminant:
Water treatment options: reverse osmosis, ion exchange softening.

Tetrachloro- ethylene:

Long term: liver problems; cancer.
Sources of contaminant: discharge from factories and dry cleaners. Water treatment options: activated carbon + aeration, reverse osmosis.

Thallium:

Short-term: gastrointestinal irritation, nerve damage. Long-term: blood chemistry changes, liver, kidney, intestinal and

testicular tissue damage, hair loss.

Sources of contaminant: leaching from ore-processing sites, electronics, glass, drug factory discharge.

Water treatment options: ion exchange.

Toluene:

Short term: minor nervous system disorders; fatigue, nausea, weakness, confusion.

Long-term: more pronounced nervous disorders; spasms, tremors, impairment of speech, hearing, vision, memory, coordination; liver and kidney damage.

Sources of contaminant: discharge from petroleum factories.
Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox).

Toxaphene:

Short-term: central nervous system effects including restlessness, hyperexcitability, tremors, spasms or convulsions.

Long-term: possible immune system suppression; cancer.
Sources of contaminant: runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cotton and cattle.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, oxidation, distillation + filtration.

1,2,4 -Trichlorobenzene:

Short-term: changes in liver, kidneys and adrenal glands.

Long-term: increased adrenal gland weights
Sources of contaminant: discharge from textile finishing factories.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal + aeration.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane:

Short term: liver, nervous system, circulatory system damage.

Long-term: liver, nervous system and circulatory system damage.

Sources of contaminant:

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox).

1,1,2-Trichloroethane:

Short-term: irritation of gastrointestinal tract; red or hemorrhaged lungs; pale liver.

Long-term: damage to liver and kidneys; cancer.
Sources of contaminant: discharge from industrial chemical factories.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal + aeration.

Trichloroethylene:

Long term: liver problems; cancer.
Sources of contaminant: discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories.
Water treatment options: activated charcoal + aeration.

Trihalomethanes (THMs):

Long term: effects liver, kidneys, or central nervous system and muscles, anemia, loss of consciousness; miscarriages and other adverse birth outcomes.

Sources of contamination: byproduct of drinking water disinfection.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, ozone + chlorine dioxide disinfection; aeration.

Turbidity:

No health effects: turbidity can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. May indicate the presence of disease causing organisms; including bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches.

Sources of contaminant: soil runoff.
Water treatment options: sediment filtration, charcoal filtration, sand filtration…

Vinyl chloride:

Short term: nervous system damage. Long-term: liver damage; cancer.

Sources of contaminant: Leaching from PVC pipes; discharge from plastic factories.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox).

Viruses:

Short term: gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps).

Sources of contaminant: human and animal fecal waste

Water treatment options: reverse osmosis, ultraviolet light, ozone, distillation + filtration, chlorination.

Xylenes:

Short term: disturbances of cognitive abilities, balance, and coordination. Long-term: central nervous system, liver and kidney damage.

Sources of contaminant: discharge from petroleum factories; discharge from chemical factories.

Water treatment options: activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, reduction + oxidation (redox).

Zinc:

Long term: muscular stiffness and pain, loss of appetite, nausea, stomach cramps, anemia, and changes in cholesterol levels.

Sources of contaminant: natural processes, mining, steel production, coal burning, and burning of waste.

Water treatment options: oxidation + reduction (redox), ion exchange.

Important Note:

Long term: generally means a “life time” exposure at elevated levels.

Also note: With each of the contaminants mentioned above and the associated water treatment option effectiveness may be limited by the level of concentration of the contaminant. A single treatment method may work in some situations, in others, a combination of several treatment methods may be required. In a worse case scenario, treatment of high contaminant concentration levels may not be economically feasible.

Prepared by Michael Robison, Moscow, Idaho 83843 September 2006.

Sources:

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency www.epa.gov/safewater
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry www.atsdr.cdc.gov
  • Department of Health and Human Services -Centers for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov
  • Water Quality Association – Water Information Library www.wqa.org
  • The Drinking Water Book by Colin Ingram (Ten Speed Press)
  • The Sierra Club Guide to Safe Drinking Water by Scott Alan Lewis (Sierra Club Books)

 

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